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St. Mary’s Church (Banglai Cathedral), Kolkata (Calcutta)

June 6, 2012 2 comments

St. Mary’s Church, Kolkata (Calcutta)

Banglai Cathedral

Also see my compilation of Calcutta (Kolkata) Churches

St. Mary's Church (Bangla Cathedral), Kolkata (Calcutta)

St. Mary’s Church (Bangla Cathedral), Kolkata (Calcutta)

It was a winter Sunday morning Prasanta (da) Banerjee lead me inside the St. Mary’s Church. The Sunday Mass was already on and a choir was being sung, strangely the language seemed Greek to me. As I settled down on the beautifully carved bench of the the St. Marys Church, I realised that the language was my very own mother tongue  Bengali. But in the dimly lit environment of the Church Bengali appeared totally out of the world.

It has been a couple of months I have been in touch with my on line friend Prasnta Banerjee, a Bengali Protestant Christian, who in a very short span of time became my “beloved dada.” Prasanta da personal invited me to the church not only to attend the Sunday Mass but also to photograph its interiors.

As the Mass progressed my eyes got adjusted to the dimly lit interiors of the church. The beautifully wood carved alter crowned with a intricately decorated stained glass attracted my attention. The alter was also flanked by two stained glass windows on either side, each depicting Biblical events.

My attention shifted toward the walls lined with marble memorials, to mu utter astonishment I found many of the memorials curved out in Bengali. No wonder the St. Mary’s Church is popularly known as the “Bangli Cathedral.”

Bengali Memorial, St. Mary's Church, Kolkata (Calcutta)

Bengali Memorial, St. Mary’s Church, Kolkata (Calcutta)

The concept of the Bengali Cathedral dates back to July 1885, when  Rev. Harihar Sandel, a pioneer missionary started worshipping in the Cathedral with a few Christian employees. It was later decided to build up a separate church for their worship. He acquired the land and mobilize fund for the construction of a church for the Bengali Protestant.

Sadly Rev. Harihar Sandel (Sanyal) died on 4 Sept. 1887 when his dream church was yet to open its doors. The St. Mary’s Church (Bangali Cathedral) finally opened its door on 16 Feb. 1889, under Rev. Aghore Nath Banerjee. Rev. Aghore Nath Banerjee later became the Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral.  He was the first Indian to receive this distinction.

Today the St. Mary’s Church stands on the Elgin Road (Lala Lajpat Rai Sarani) opposite the Bhawanipur Education Society College.

Stained Glass, St. Mary's Church (Bengali Cathedral), Calcutta (Kolkata)

Stained Glass, St. Mary’s Church (Bengali Cathedral), Calcutta (Kolkata)

The Mass was soon over and Prasanta Da introduced me to Rev. Sukhendu Biswas, the present Canon of St. Marys Church, who immediately gave me the permission to shoot inside the church. Armed with my camera I headed for the beautiful alter flanked with the even more beautiful stained glasses.

Sunday Mass, St. Mary's Church (Bangali Cathedral), Kolkata (Calcutta)

Sunday Mass, St. Mary’s Church (Bangali Cathedral), Kolkata (Calcutta)

Soon I shifted my attention to the marble memorials, and a memorial located very next to the alter attracted my attention. Written in English and followed by Bengali it was a memorial dedicated to Rev. Harihar Sandel (Sanyal).

As I moved towards the main entrance the memorial of Rev. Aghar Nath Banerjee, but unlike Rev. Harihar Sandel (Sanyal), it was written in English only. Next to Rev. Aghore Banerjee’s memorial lies a beautiful ,written in beautiful flowing Bengali font, dedicated to the father & daughter duo of Lukswarup Chandra Singh and her daughter Grace Khemankari.

Finally it was time for home. I bade good bye to Rev. Sukhendu Biswas, Prasanta da and all the other church members and returned with memories to last a life time.

Special Thanks:

Rev. Sukhendu Biswas, Prasanta (da) Banerjee and the entire community of St. Mary’s Church, Kolkata.

Rajarani Temple ~ Oriya gem not quiet Oriya

Rajarani Temple

~ Oriya Temple not quiet Oriya ~

Also see my compilation of Bhubaneswar Temples

Rajarani is considered as one of the finest temples of not only of Bhubaneswar but also of entire Orissa. Strangely the temple architecture of Orissa differs significantly from the traditional Oriya Temple Architecture.

Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

There are certain parameters that make Rajrani different from the other Oriya Temples. The parameters are:

  • Origin of the Name
  • Shape of the Spire
  • Rigged inner sanctum
  • Presence of female figurine

Origin of the Name Rajarani

Longitudunal cross - section (above) and floor plan (below) of Raja - Rani Temple, Bhubaneswar (Sketch courtsy: Narayan Sanyal)

Sectional digram (Sketch courtesy: Narayan Sanyal)

Apart from Lingraj, the names of the Shive Temples of Bhubaneswar ends with an “Eshwar” like Mukteshwar, Parsurameshwar, Sideshwar, Rameshwar, Brahmeshwar etc. While the Shakti and Bishnu temples are named after the respective Gods and Goddesses, like Vaital, Gouri, Anantabasudev, etc. Strangely Rajarani follows neither of the two.

With the absence of dedicatory plaque nothing is known about the date of construction or the name of the creator off Rajarani Temple, and historians are totally in the dark.

Rajarani happens to be an abandoned temple, with an empty inner sanctum. Some historian opine that the temple was never established while others suggest that it was abandoned at a later date.

The Rajarani name probably originated from the reddish Rajarani sandstone by which the temple is constructed. Incidentally Rajarani is the only temple in Orissa which is constructed by the reddish Rajarani sandstone. The other temples of Orissa are made of the conventional yellowish sandstone.

Shape of Rajarani’s Spire

The spires of Oriya temple consists of a single spire, with horizontal ridge lines, known as rekh.

Left to right: Sectional digram of different spires, photo of Rajarani spire, horizental cross section of Rajarani spire

Left to right: Sectional digram of different spires (Kalinga, Khajuraho & Rajarani), photo of Rajarani spire, horizontal cross section of base of Rajarani spire (Sketch Courtesy: Narayan Sanyal)

The spire of Rajarani Temple doesn’t follow the conventional Oriya rekh style, in fact it has remarkable reassemble with the spires of Khajuraho Temples. The spire of Rajarani Temple consists of a central spire flanked by 32 smaller spires arrange in two different stages. The inner stage contains 8 minor spires and the outer stage contains 24 minor spires.

Rigged Inner Sanctum of Rajarani

Although the outer walls of Oriya temples have projections, known as rath but inner plan of the Jagmohan and Garbagriha (inner sanctum) are rectangles or squares with straight walls.

Floor plan of Biman (Left: rigged interior of Raja Rani, Right: plane interior of typical Oriya Temple)

Floor plan of Biman (Left: rigged interior of Rajarani, Right: plane interior of typical Oriya Temple) (Sketch Courtesy: Narayan Sanyal)

Strangely both the Jagmohan and Garbagriha (inner sanctum) of Rajarani Temple are not rectangles or squares with straight walls but have projections similar to those of the outer walls. This again is not only a dissimilarity with the Oriya style but also a similarity with the Khujuraho style.

Presence of female figurines in Rajarani

Although female figurines are not uncommon on the outer walls of Oriya temples but the female figurines of Rajrani Temples differs considerably.

Female Figurines, Raja - Rani Temple, Bhubaneswar

Intricate sculptures Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar

The slender looking female figures in different posture have a remarkable resembles with those of Khajuraho.

Conclusion

So was it some Khajuraho princes, married to a Kalinga monarch, inspired the construction of the Oriya gem? with no concrete evidences the historians are still in the dark.

Reference:

  • Karutirthe Kalinga by Narayan Sanyal
  • Barthiya Bhaskarje  Mithun by Narayan Sanyal

Related links from my website:

Also see my compilation of Bhubaneswar Temples and my list of Blog entries on Orissa

St. James’ Church (Jora Girja), Calcutta (Kolkata)

April 27, 2012 4 comments

St. James’ Church, Calcutta (Kolkata)

Jora Girja, Church with the twin spires

Also see my compilation of Calcutta (Kolkata) Churches

Jota Girja is an important bus – stop on the Lower Circular Road (Presently AJC Bose Road). The name originated from the twin spires of the St. James Church.

St. James' Church, Kolkata (Calcutta) and the foundation stone

St. James’ Church, Kolkata (Calcutta) and the foundation stone

Exterior decoration, St. James' Church, Calcutta

Exterior decoration, St. James’ Church, Calcutta

The original St. James Church of Kolkata (Calcutta) dates back to 1823 and was located in the Nebotola Lane, near Amherst Street. The foundation of the church was laid in 1820 by the first Bishop of Calcutta T F Middleton. The church was open to public by the Bishop Heber in 1823.

But the church had serious construction errors and soon started developing cracks and chunks of masonry soon started crushing down. The church authority were forced to close down the church in 1855.

The present building, sandwiched between the St. James’ and Pratt Memorial School, of the St. James’ Church dates back to 1868 and was designed by the East Bengal Railway Architect Walter B Granville, who also designed the Kolkata High Court, GPO and Calcutta University Senate Hall (the last one no longer exists).

Interior Design, St. James' Church, Calcutta (Kolkata)

Interior Design, St. James’ Church, Calcutta

Built in Gothic style the St. James’ Church or the Jora Girja is one of Kolkata’s elegant churches, with pointed Gothic arches on both its exterior and interior.

The twin spires, one of which contains a clock, is joined by a beautiful triangular pediment. The interior contains a long passageway leading to the alter.

But the star attraction of the St. James’ Church is the beautifully decorated black mahogany wood work at the ceiling. Something so durable, that even the termites of Kolkata have spared it for 146 years. But the termites haven’t spared the wooden floor of the second level. With the church crumbling again the parishioners finally decided to give it a face-lift.

Kolkata based conservation architect Manish Chakraborty was assigned the job of restoring the 146 year old St. James’ Church. The beautifully restored church was handed over to the parishioners of 11 December 2011. I was specially invited by Manish Chakraborty to photograph the St. James’ Church on the eve of the hand over.

Special Thanks:

  • Mr. Manish Chakraborty, conservation architect.

Reference :

  • Swasat Kolkata by Nishitranjan Roy

List of my Blog entries on Calcutta (Kolkata)

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